Thursday, June 25, 2009

Pilots for feedback

Yup - as has been the habit I have dropped off the face of the blogging earth after the round of conferences. Being in the weeds on a major project had a lot to do with it.

The university is in the middle of completely revamping their web site. The primary goals are to provide consistent navigation across ALL pages across the site (which may prove to be a minor miracle in and of itself) and to provide tools to the content owners that allow them to edit their site with a minimum amount of coding.

We are using Vignette as the back end for our site. For this first round, the web team has worked with each of the content owners to create customized templates and content types. Once these are established, my job is to show them how to use them in the least painful way possible.

As in most implementation projects, critical process decisions are still being made. How much control do they want the content owners to have? Do they want them to be able to create their own templates? Will there be separate creation and publication teams? Who will serve as first, second and third line help?

Since most of us are reasonably new with this tool (of course, I am the newest person), we are also slowly figuring out tips and tricks to share with the content owners. And, of course, there have been regular build upgrades that add new features and functions to be accounted for. So one of my tasks is to help figure out ways to communicate these changes even after the new site goes "live".

What has made this project such a pleasure to work on is that the SMEs have been incredibly forthcoming with both information and with time. You have no IDEA how rare that is. Their thought, as so eloquently put by one of the technical leads:

I spend time with you now, I won't have to spend time with you later.

And though the training design will be very fluid for the next few months, we all figure that if we can manage to get the shell right for the upcoming groups, everybody ultimately does less work in the long-run.

I am piloting 2 classes this afternoon. With a large audience that includes the web team (employees AND contractors) and the help desk. A number of these folks have not had a chance to touch the system at all. One of them (the Help Desk manager) has never even seen it before.

From the pilot, I hope to glean the following information:

- Does the order of the training make sense?

- Did I provide the right model? Can the end user encounter another template or content type and still be able to function?

- Am I giving them too much information or too little?

The team knows that I am trying to keep each training between 60 and 90 minutes long. We have decided to allow for 4 hours per session during training delivery so that the content owners can begin entering content directly after the training session with in-person help at hand. Again, 2 birds, 1 stone. They get training and practice + they get real work done in a "safe" environment.

Wish me luck!

Friday, June 05, 2009

#IeL09 The End of a Long Week

This is not Scoble.
(it's Peter from ADL - who happened to find Scoble's nametag lying on the floor)

This conference was incredibly validating.

I love walking away from a week knowing that yes, despite seeming a bit "out there" in the eyes of my co-workers and clients and other members of the broader professional community, I am on the right track.

And that there are people who feel the same way I do, fighting the same battles.

I loved being able to bounce ideas off of people of like mind with different experiences and perspectives. This networking time was as valuable as the sessions themselves. In a couple of cases, even more-so.

Something that struck me looking at the GameJam boards yesterday:

We spend so much time talking about designing games.

Maybe we ought to consider ways to incorporate some off-the-shelf games and put them in an educational context.

This might be a way to ease into incorporating richer, more interactive media into a class. Begin getting our more traditional colleagues thinking. If they don't have to go through the design process for the game (much less the class), maybe it would be an easier way to bring them over to our side...

Kicking this around.......

I love that the DAU is actually building the thing that I want to ultimately build.

I think they are going to provide the model for what a fully integrated learning program actually looks like - including "pull" functionality that will help eliminate some of the digging around students have to do now.

I can...not...wait to see how this evolves.


I also loved that the DAU has a leader who is a big fan of rapid prototyping.
- Get it
- play with it
- figure it out
- then sell it to the uppers.

These guys aren't asking permission to experiment. And they have a leader who encourages it.

I heard a couple of other iterations of the same thing at Innovations in eLearning.


Big takeaway from the 3D Virtual Worlds session - we are not quite there yet in terms of easy to use tools to build this type of environment.

And we are CERTAINLY not there yet in terms of design.

Technology rich - practice poor


It's been fun! Thanks to the Mark Oehlert and Chris StJohn for inviting me.
Thanks to everyone I talked to for stretching my brain.

#IeL09 Game Jam WINNER

Will Wright's choice for Game Jam!

Project: Permanent Campaign
Team: Stephen Martin, Maria Anderson, Dan Petrak, Richard Sebastian

Concept: You are an ambitious candidate. Goal: Presidency of the US. Collection of Mini- Games. Wii based
- Work the Room. Shake hands and meet people
- Teleprompter Kareoke - Deliver the speech. Use Rock Star-type voice recognition
- Choose advisors
- Dodge the Question.
- Office serves as central command and information post. Watch the poll numbers


I had a chance to talk to the team members as they disassembled the project board - Dan slowly peeling off the Excellence sticker and their picture of the box cover to bring back with him and Maria to Des Moines Area Community College.

They won because:
- They did a nice job of dealing with both short-term and long-term effects of decisions. Particularly how a decision that is positive in the short term could prove to be negative in the long term

- "It just looked like fun and I want to play it."


And if we ever see this on the market, we now know where the idea came from and who should get the royalties (please see the list above).....

#IeL09 Web 3D and eLearning

Presentation: Web 3D and eLearning
Presenters: Dan Bilton, Cary Hart Booz Allen Hamilton

ATLAS Pro (Gov't LMS) - DAU

Used multi-verse engine. MMOPG - physics ed. LunarQuest
- Play as cadet on colony - sci fi
- Flash mini-games embedded inside

REal-time 3D - interactive 3D rendered on the fly
Non-real time 3D - 3D animated sequences rendered previously (Pixar Movies)
Web 3D - real time 3D run on the web
Persistent world - virtual worlds that exist even when the user logs out (2nd life)
Non-persistent world - virtual world that does not change when you log out. (simulators)

What is needed
- easy to use tool that enable designers and developers to produce a 3D virtual world activities - that run in a web browser without the need for additional applications or plugins (e.g. Flash)
- We may be a year from the above happening.

US Nexus -- does not run directly in browser. Do have to run something on machine.
- need holy grail of easy to produce, run on everyone machine.

BopIt extreme [[we didn't get very far]

What types of things good in a 3D world - which activity good and solid
- Interacting and touring. If not doing it in 3D outside of the world - why are you getting into 3D world.
- If you are just doing a meeting - why go through the effort of 3D?
- Lately going to meetings in 2nd life - powerpoint. Why are we not using webex, Adobe Connect?
- Ad Hoc discussions - if there is a room set aside - can do ad hoc if folks hang out in the area

Remember - there is a technology hurdle to implement this.

Why is this relevant to you?
- if want to get a closer look - can look at a different angle.
- Unity is just in a browser. Uses small plugin - similar to flash. Might be smaller. (about $400). Similar learning curve to Flash. Flash developers learn quickly.
+ One of first viable Web 3D technologies
+ Came up quickly
+ Still looking for thing that doesn't require ANY plugin
+ Video card dependent. Laptops that can't run second life - can run this
+ If keep complexity of scene down - easier.
+ Rooms contained, limited colors.
+ This particular instant - non-persistent, reset. Can be used for non-persistent worlds.
+ Can make them a multi-player world. Can be make persistent world.

Again - focus on what you want to achieve with the instruction.....

Flash is still a 2 dimentional engine.
- Someone must be a very hardcore programmer
- JUST became possible to do 3D in Flash
- Unity renders better.

3d allows different perspectives
- Web allows centralized location, link out to other assets, etc

How far away - 3D tools for assessment?
- the big question - do you NEED to ask the question in 3D.
- Designed to have people DO something

Gotta have quite a few different skillsets on your team to currently build a 3D world.
- Can build a nice world over a weekend. But it took 3 or 4 people.

Benefits - 3D world
- immerse learner
- allow learner to explore impacts
- replay scenarios - several times and limitless angles (look at Madden Football)
- No need expensive equipment or travel - bring the environment to you
- Many also have VoIP (still a bit clunky)

Benefits - Web-based 3D world
- Centralized nature of content allow for single point of change
- Ability to link to supporting content
- Integration with other media
- Trackable via LMS
+ Client-based VW also trackable, but more difficult)

ITIC - training simulation conference 1 example of use.
- Soldier in booth - running through world
- Coach watching remotely
- Can replay the simulation and analyze

2nd life - download client. When change code - download client again
- Can now launch HTML files
- Hard to embed 2nd life into HTML doc

- VIsible Body (Unity)

Concept to operator - what actually happens.
- Give you multiple perspectives
- Multiple person does make it trickier for team events.....

[Demonstrated FAA prototype Booz Allen is using. Demonstrating first person 3D integrated into Flash and HTML]

They have used other media engines
- Shockwave - problem, lost out on fidelity. Never improved it.
+ no good lighting and shadowing
+ didn't tweak the physics.

March - came out with a platform that runs on Windows. Was MAC

Unreal and Torque 3D -
- Torque 3D Web Accessable, but whenever upload, creates new plugin for each game.
- Web.ALive - 19 meg download, then have to download the world.

Non-persistent - simulators
Persistent - dialogs and role plays

As features increase, the worlds become closer.

Of course what we really want is easy to use and no or pre-existing plugin.

1st thing to do - get exposure for yourself
- Play the games
- Second life! (lots of good simulators and things to manipulate etc)
+ They are developing second life through firewalls

Remember - do you really need 3d for this objective?

3D VWs - good when interacting in 3D.
- go to predefined area.

Think about what games do - explore, cooperation if multiple people
- You Had To DO Something

We do powerpoint because its easy.....

The spatial is important
- you can also do 3D audio. (this is newer)

[ note to self - may be time to go back into Second Life...been a long time ]

People can spend time on avatars, have anomations, Can see representations.
- We still don't have enough animation on the face
- Plus really need the audio.

Actually USE the 3D world.
- Don't show the flowchart - do it!!!!

Web 3D has actually been around since 1995 (VRML 1.0)
- 1998 - Java3D Rel 1
- Became really more sophisticated in 2004 (X3D, Java3D Rel 2)

Can make Web3D SCORM conformant
- Through API calls from JavaScript
- Web 3D does not have sandbox issues (permissions with communication) because running through the web. Issue with standalone 3D.
- As long as you can tap into API - you are good

Able to integrate with other technologies
- Can run video through Web3D.
+ Make "texture"
- Link to other resources
- Other instructional materials can be located within same or new browser window.

New features being added constantly.

[remember: will need to do re-evaluation of technologies as they mature]

Cost and metrics to develop.WMATA systems integration 3D Demo totally from scratch.
- Built in a weekend, 3 people
- 1 - oversight and a bit of programming
- 1 real-time 3d modeler
+ Can make high quality, low polygon count
- 1 javascript
- 24 hours each.

Does not include design time.

#IeL09 Technology and the Next Gen Learner

Presentation: In School Suspension - Technology and the Next Gen Learner
Presenter: Dr. Adrian Sannier, CTO Arizona State

Thought experiment
- If you agree - "now what do I do"
- Don't agree - "I can catch my flight"

We are for the first time in our history
- Technology rich
- Practice poor

Reason why we are practice poor - because we were technology poor

The further up the food chain you go with educators - "it's a fad."

Imagine a genetic mutation arises in people
- the mutation causes young people have the capacity for telepathy
- the kids stare into space. "I'm talking to people."
- Kids also have power - have infinite memory.
+ We've taken photographs.

Never in human history has is been so easy to photograph and movie and tag and create and catalog experience and recall so quickly.

They take this for granted.

So how do you really teach these people?

IN Dumbledore's universe - a culture on using powers.
- Long tradition of how to do it.

We aren't in this position because we don't know what to do with these powers.

Maybe we need Prof. Xavier - new powers on new people
- He can kinda figure it out.
- Problem - no Prf. Xavier

SO what do we do....put em in class like we normally do.

Of course, the kids use the powers to game the system.
- so what do we do - we BAN the power.

Now if you are a kid with these powers, and the only place you are not allow to use them - in school.
- What relavance does this have to your life?

THe professor is in an arms race.
- Realized the kids use a DEVICE.
- I just need a way to zap the device

Problem - the kids we are boring, are paying our old age.

Problem - we are maligning these powers.
- Where do you get off tellling them that?!?

We don't understand them.

Xbox Live - most advanced simulation in a world. Can play games with people everywhere
- THe games deep and complicated
- Kids don't read the instruction manual.
- Spending entire life formulating complicated strategies.

Leeroy Jenkins. [ this dude is acting it out ]

We are missing an entire CULTURE.
- What's good, what's bad, how it works, how used......

Culture comes from education.
- Problem - instead of figuring out, we push downward

THe whole desire to ban what we don't understand [happened throughout history with new technologies]

We are not keeping up.

We all know what a search looks like. It looks like a box!
ASU Library example - go look at the page
- How many clicks does it take to get to the damn article!!!!!!

TL DNR - too long do not read. [yup - like my blog post]
- survival skill on internet - not to get sucked into unneccesary reading

Boolean searches - not so critical anymore
- computers do this well, why do we need to know.

We teach handwriting
Kids learn on their own how to type, use internet, search, adding
- We are overcomplicating our search design.

How its supposed to be
- There's your portal
- There's your search
- There's your article

His challenge - they are the only research university in a city of 3.5 million
- hundreds of thousands of people need education
- Problem: no new schools
- We need to figure out how to provide a first class education for twice as many students!

ASU - from 50k to up to 100k + 100k distance learners.

Lots of us will have to be involved - keep going back

Technology is the only goose that keeps getting better / cheaper...
- Allows them to tap into more....

A decade before - university had highest level of tech spending
- Company - lose internet, email, technology

Now - universities not highest level of tech
- Amazon knows mom better than I do.....
- We get better flat. A litte at a time. Google and Amazon on the curve

Video - Google Data Center

IT industrialized in 20 years
- Alvin Toeffler had it right.
- Standard industry - 150-200 years. You could adjust!

When ASU decided to switch to GMail - converted in 2 weeks.
- Gave the students a choice. 300 students switch in an hour.
- [They had same experience that we did did.]

The transition to GMail is the golden use.
- NOW - everyone has lots of quota, a calendar, other tools

Communicate for free in infrastructure provided by school.

THe CTO gave up! Joined the aliens

[note to my bosses - talk to this guy about GMail implementation]

THey dismantled their rich media installation and now use iTunes U.
- Anything you create - becomes internationally known.
- How do you distribute rich media now?

Whatever curve you are on - when the disruptive curve crosses you, you should be out of business.
- SHoot the person if they want you to use their products on your servers.

Run to the cloud as fast as you can.

ASU is dumping stuff like mad.
- Used to connect campuses by microwaves. Problem: in summer bandwidth go down during day because the water towers would swell
- switched to Quest - now ...erm really high tech

Data Center - outsourced

These are substitution technologies. Not even where the benefit comes from

REAL benefit - modifying what learning is.

Gotta harness the new powers.

5 schools using Kindle to distribute textbooks.
- Finally got the eBook.

Technology rich - practice poor. Classic example with textbooks
- Publishers have a good racket

Essentially need to change the model.

Access to Google = access (ultimately) to every book ever made
- right now 270k titles available for kindle

Amazon - 30% of sales now electronic.
- made a device specifically for textbooks.
- the kindle ultimately cheaper. Everyone makes money (maybe not the SAME money)
- kindle still a replacement tech

We need publishers to start creating simulations
- resources

Boiler - Elements....

Also reduces reliance on the textbook. New version - can also read PDFs, other media

Beginning to take their social networks and importing into facebook.
- Increasing engagement

We are NOWHERE NEAR modification

Clayton Christensen - Disrupting Class
- Innovators Dilema- how technologies disrupt existing markets (example film to digital photography)
- Kodak was at really high level on the performance curve. Made sustaining innovation.
+ Big changes disrupt system and customers.
+ Kodak in 1960s had huge research lab. Started investing in digital in 1960s. But could never introduce it, because they make film....
+ Big industry for them to disrupt.
- Finally needed a 4 billion dollar disruption.
- Very tough to switch businesses when high functioning.

Higher ed running into same issue.

Christensen - innovation will come down market.
- In places not so prestigeous.
- Military is going as much innovation as anybody.
+ Can't just leave and go to harvard.

THinking books won't be the web.
When you see an MIT professor explain momentum and have free access, don't have to go to the school etc.....

We are also going to have to reckon with the half-life in education
- We've been dealing with this in technology for a long time.
+ think about how different what you know is in 2 years if you are in the tech industry

This way that we teach, where there is an "expert" and "lectures"
- gotta end. Because you find yourself retreating.

If we don't switch to a way where the teacher's job is to guide learning for yourself....

Redefining literacy 2.0
- math
+ WolframAlpha
+ Tip of the iceburg. Can now use math!!!!
+ Open Learning Initiative (Carnegie Mellon)
+ Need to see math as SKILL. Learn using tools. Like Excel.
+ Lockhart's lament.
- reading and reading critically
- writing, may need to be different.
+ One of the powers they have - can produce essays quickly.
+ At work, producing document that describes stuff - what do you do? Pull stuff down and SYNTHESIZE
+ Writing - now teaching VALUE-ADD
+ Also - multi-media constriction
Teach how to find, synthesize and rework so value added.

Use the tools that are REAL.
- Ones actually use.

Get them to use the technologies to keep us learning.

Innovations going to come from people like us - the downmarket folks.

Folks doing work for the military
Kaplan, University of Phoenix....

If you have the idea that something fundamental has to change......he did his job.

Issue of Cloud and software as service
- "we can't do that" Really everywhere.....
- Bank vs matress. Gradually clear that the bank could ultimately give more security.
- WHo cares about your email more - the 3 guys running it or the dudes at Google where the mail can't even be found.
+ Plus, you have a contractual protection with them.
+ Your internal

Universities beginning to really analyze what they have - starting to be no-brainer.

If you are cut off from this innovation - you cannot keep up.......even close.....

Conditioning - like baby birds are fed. Conditioned to consume rather than participate.
- Guess what - not SAFE for you is to do what you've been doing.
- If you lose the job you have, you may not get another.

Key Skill - gotta be able to climb the value chain.

We do people a disservice by catering to folks desire to not think.

1-to-1 Make sure every student comes to school with laptop at ASU.
- University distributes, gets a bit of coin
- What they get as coin - they can give the laptop to the 4% who cannot afford a laptop.
- What they complain about the most - they don't use the tools in school! They expect professors to respond to email... Want materials online.

#IeL09 Successful Implementation of Online Collaboration

Presentation: A Look at Successful Implementation of Online Collaboration
Presenters: Pat Daron, Bob Loser, Cindy Miller, Kim Monti, Rebecca Wright (NVCC - Extended Learning Institute)

Goal: To make anatomy and physiology courses more interactive

ELI organizational development needs
- increase student interaction
- Engage students in deeper learning
- Virginia Tech - ALHRD (Adult Learning / Human Resource Development) program outreach

Va Tech created course - facilitating learning in an adult online environment
- Students from NVCC faculty and staff and Va Tech
- Graduate level
- Everyone wins.

Facilitating Online Collaboration for Adult Learners - fully online course
- Objectives modeled through facilitators
- Online discussion with facilitators guiding interaction
- Group projects
+ Investigating online collaborative tool
+ Discipline related project

[ um, I took a course exactly like this at Towson during my degree. So how is this encouraging online collaboration? It's pretty much an explanation of the course. ]

Why collaborate?
- Reduce potential for learner isolation
- Increase retention of students in course
- Extend and deepen student experience

- Adults enter an educational context when they are ready to learn
- In control of learning
- Meaning making is transformed during learning process
- Critical reflection important
- Learning to learn (metacognition) essential for adult development

- Active learning and knowledge construction based on prior knowledge
- Real world problem solving
- Interacting with other learners and teacher/facilitators

Learner-centered vs. teacher-directed
- Developing on line learning communities
- Developed collaboration guidelines
+ Set the stage
+ Expectations for interaction
+ Create the environment
+ Model the process
+ Facilitation KEY

Anatomy and Physiology instructors
- Low success rates
- Poor self-pacing

How the anatomy and physiology instructors reacted to the course

Case study - NAS 150. Most critical course
- content-heavy

Two considerations about adding collaboration

- No significant addition of information
+ Had reservations because it was so content-heavy. Time-issue
+ Also limited - not a proctored event. Made it low-points.
+ Concerned about non-registered students participating.

- Goals
+ Improve student performance
+ Assist students in making connections
-- Knew they would meet in future courses when they came on campus

Feeling of connection / community seems important for learning - according to the literature
- [the professor didn't seem ENTIRELY sold on this]

Created three collaborative activities

1) Self-reflection papers on studying for exams
+ Students grouped according to results of Learning Styles Assessment
+ Wanted them to critically evaluate material studied for each exam
-- Instructional Goal: Extend knowledge beyond course materials
+ Identify strategies used to learn difficult concepts
-- Were there study aids that helped?
-- Previous knowledge or experience that assisted?
+ Wanted to get students expert in their own learning (quite a challenge....)
-- Many students are not used to or comfortable in the classroom environment

3 fold transition
- connect
- think and think more deeply
- creativity emerges

Reflection takes practice.
- 1 student trying to learn about muscles. To get through chapter 2 - she got her body-builder buddy to help. Was really happy that she managed to get through chapter 1 (the small victory)
- PRovided rubric, group students based on results, provided specific tips to study based on results
+ [student beginning to shape the course]

2) Had students share chosen medical problem
- Adult learners motivated if they can relate knowledge to their lives
+ Retention, deepens knowledge
- One student had responses from every other student because she made it very personal to her life
+ Other students begin to relate situation to their own life

3) Reflection of a memorable medical experience while working in a health field
- Wound up being the most exciting collaborative activity and happiest with student collaboration here.
- Getting response from both student.
- [More interesting: the professor engages on a peer level / sharing OWN experience, not as "professor"]

Made it a point to show them how to post and use the technology

Grading rubric showed them how they were graded. Very important.

Given the "internet etiquette" guide. If get hostile post - can fall back on the guide and processes.

2nd anatomy and physiology course example NAS161
- Found the sucess rate is an issue because of the construction of the course itself.
- 2 semesters long. TREMENDOUS Workload

- Used current events articles.
+ Familiar material to facilitate collaborative, constructivist and active learning.
+ Use available technology to lighten load
+ Blackboard limits to discussion boards that are very statis.

- Professor subscribed to OWN RSS feed. Students see shared articles
+ Is the first editor.
+ Reduces busy-work for student.

- Laymans sources give base for students.
+ Extend knowledge, deepen knowledge, make students be critical, have students synthesize info and evaluation knowledge

Exercise had students - summarize article, put in course level, personalize the information.

- Could see the student's "held notions" - what incorrect assumptions / knowledge the students are coming in with. Didn't have this before. [again, students beginning to impact the course itself]

- Students will take the ideas and run with it....the professors finding just adding a little bit of reflection as an exercise improved student results.

[at this point, I had to leave......]

[ hungry....left....]

#IeL09 The Social Web and Learning

Presentation: The Social Web and Learning - A Case Study
Presenter: Robert Jordan, Penn State U

ASTD State of the Industry - learner control

Learner controlling own learning key

Social Web - how people socialize, interact with each other through the Web
- Shared interest

2 types of social web
- People focus (Facebook, myspace)
- Hobby focus (Flikr, photobucket for photography)

How do I harness this to promote learning?

Social Web aps (social networks, blogs, wikis, rss feeds, social bookmarking, multimedia and file sharing, podcasts, mashup networks... the ususal suspects....)


Learning Environment Affordances
- Constructivist knowledge building - learning by creating
- Collaboration
- Learning communities
- Virtual "practice space"
- Ongoing learning
- Many applications available at no cost
(the practical rationale)
+ The ones I used to build my learning environment free

Case study: Online Course
- Course on Web 2.0
- Entirely online learning environment
- 3 week duration
- Developed using social web applications
- Asynchronous

Study setting and participants
- Organization of 5,000 in Washington DC
- 41 total participants (40 consented) - surprised by the number
- All levels of organization represented - also surprised, esp since didn't find out until later
- Cross-generational participation

Learning environment
- Used Ning - Courseware management system
- Blog: Blogger, SharePoint, Wordpress
- Wiki: Wetpaint and SharePoint (Wetpaint good wiki for educational setting)
- RSS: Google Reader
- Bookmarks:
- SlideShare
- Podcasts: .mp3 files. Not fancy

If you covered the information, used that technology

(Can't do link because of proprietary information)

[note to self - build a Web 2.0 course]

Some developed profile
- Found they were communicating with each other in the comment wall.
- Knowledge being built within the comment walls.
- Saw evidence of community-building

Used the Ning discussion boards
- With trigger questions
- Did NOT want to be a course "here's a tool, go create account" No debate about value, pros, cons, problems for implementation.

Web 2.0 largely unstructured. Works well this way.

The Wiki - tried to use the wiki for discussion in the course
- Didn't leave a lot of structure.
- Wanted them to play.
- Kinda disappointed in what produced.
- Interesting, the organization actually USED wikis for their technical information
+ They had them look that the organization's "wikipedia"
+ Made them create an account on their own organizations' wikipedia.
+ Most people read, not edit or add.

[lesson - start with more structure]

Conceptual framework
- Knowledge Building (primary). Where social web shines
+ Not just putting knowledge out, but also having learner build on the knowledge
- Practice space. [Key word here is SAFE place to practice.]
- Legacy - instructional theory
+ Looking at online legacy for future learners on the same material
+ Creating the reference
+ Looking at whether people coming back to course afterwards
- Collaboration / Community

Knowledge Building - Melanie Scardamalia (2002)
- Computer supported environment - mostly with kids in her study
- Knowledge building discourse
- Constructive use of authoritative resources
- Rise Above - where someone takes an idea from someone else and transforms it into a higher conceptual idea
- Real ideas, authentic problems - where people express ideas that come out of their experiences. Sharing and getting responses
- Improvable ideas - like rise above. Take ideas, others improve

It's not just about "putting out knowledge" Help them build.

Case Study Method
- Unit of Analysis: The case itself
- Unit of Participation: Participant interaction and course artifacts
- Codes assigned based on the conceptual framework
- "Unpacking" and analysis of themes
- Didn't quantify. Interpretive look in the specific course. Didn't generalize to broader application.

The non-consentual student
- didn't participate. Just created an account.
- If he did contribute, couldn't use his contribution. Would have to scrub all material.
- He got lucky - only 1 didn't consent. Many have 1/2 not concent

What saw most often:
Knowledge Building Discourse -
- triggered by question
- people grappling with issues and disagreements

Constructive use of authoritative resources. Providing links.
- This was totally unprompted

Also saw evidence of improvable ideas and real ideas, authentic problems.

Saw evidence of community/collaboration. Desire for "legacy" - several people wanted to come back to the course. Have seen some people come back - not many.

Can you have a course that never ends?
Can you have a course open worldwide?

Lots of people use blogging in course
- as reflective learning
- There is engagement too. Successful blogs have a point of view.

Thought about "if I did this course again" maybe just use same things and have people build onto them rather than starting completely anew.

Found 20 people really engaged. Found others had to scaffold.
- Didn't enforce going out and creating accounts

Study Findings - Themes
- Social Web promotes collaborative knowledge building
+ Lots of evidence of this

- Design should be simple and not overwhelm learners
+ Some people wanted more structure
+ Had some trainers - they really wanted structure.
+ Site couldn't be wide-open. The user name / password barrier. When you make people establish more accounts - seemed to be barrier.
+ Keep in one application overall if you can.

- Appeal may not be universal or cross-generational
+ Some of the people who liked it most were the older ones.
+ Think about the average age of bloggers - older.
[Hey Clark - some research evidence that the social web / millenial learner thing may be a myth]

- Adoption and diffusion may take time
+ Got some pushback from the policy people on some of these technologies.
+ IT folks didn't really care.
+ As much as you can make it bottom-up with the users better.

Did some monitoring to make sure nothing really sensitive.
- Many of these social web aps have monitoring tools of some sort.

Social Web - May be best used more informally
- You can create a course out of it. The people invested were happy with the course.
- Instructor felt a little straightjacketed
- Strong for building learning communities.
- Performance support - esp. RSS. Help gather and share resources.
- Implications for ISD
+ Liked the idea for informal learning
+ Are incorporated successfully in formal instruction
+ Many using blogs and wikis

Wikipedia - error rates similar to other online encyclopedia
- Makes people more active readers.
- "maybe I can edit that." May not be a bad thing to make them question.
- Some doing wikipedia articles as class projects.

This will grow.

#IeL09 Friday Morning Keynote

Presentation: The Second Transformation
Presenter: Frank Anderson

Asked why are we investing time and resources in doing this conference?
- To create a learning environment for DoD - we need to create an environment internally.

Helps having people excited about new ideas.
- DAU has created one of largest e-Environments in the world.

First transformation
- Trying how to create a better environment for the workforce
- How to improve reach and products and credibility

Second transformation
- Move to a true learning environment where empower EVERY employee to be an everyday learner.

Moving from learning as "benefit" to learning as "required competency"
- Shelf life of knowledge much shorter
- What you know today will depreciate
- What employees know today has a short shelf life! Organizations intellectual capital also depreciates!

Has one of the largest acquisition libraries in the world.
- little value if trapped in four walls
- Creating avenues to make this library available to the workforce as needed

Trying to create 24/7 enviroment for learning
- Give employees control of when

Have a learning asset design division, a learning asset delivery division, and the admin
- Working on the largest funded growth of acquisition workflow. (15% between now and 2015.
- Driving a lot of partnerships w/ academia (internships, recruiting out of college, etc)
- Greatest concern - takes too long to hire and get person on board.

24/7 learning assets for the classroom and workplace
- We can no longer be trapped by a classroom learning paradigm.
- We can no longer be trapped by location.

Accelerated growth and sustained expertise
- When do resident training course - highest point of retention, last day of class.
+ If not using it on job - only thing remember about the class is the jokes. Other material disappear rapidly.
- Must shape learning environment in way there is "reach-back" capability
+ Delivery at learning point of need.

This is a competative advantage.
- Need it, emotional attachment, gonna use it
- Get all those points together - high retention

77% of students now touched by e-learning
- No New funding in pulling this off. Reallocation and thinking through new delivery.
- Deal up front - we never bought into paradigm that you do eLearning to cust costs.
+ NEVER get into that deal with the leadership team
+ Can save cost by just not doing training
- Their partnership with leadership
+ We can expand reach, deliver just in time.
+ Any savings need to be reapplied to university - we need to reallocate. Improve the learning investment
- 9,000 1st time students each month
- 2008 largest delivery year. 36,000 classroom, 118,391 elearning. 25% increase in graduates
- This year predicting 185k grads across all resources.

New learning assets
- Now have 248 CLC Modules and 33,332 total graduates
- Modules turned off as made obsolete
- These are Self-paced resources!!!!
- People choose resources they want when they want them.

We have 75k people who would have NEVER been touched who are using these modules.

We no longer expect them to remember everything.
- The resources are there to refresh when they have a need to renew their expertise.

Performance Support
- Taking faculty members who go into field
- Work on issues the field workers are actually working on!!!!
- Helping in the actual environment! Solve everyday real problems.

Realigned brick and mortar infrastructure so closest to DAU population centers

Now have world-wide reach with eInfrastructure.
- Now true 24/7 capability
- Time / space / distance

- About expanding reach!!!!!!

80k employees who sign up for courses every month
10k are folks doing this for the first time

We touch over a million students annually with assets
- this is reach

Is e better than classroom?
- Some things we do better in classroom. Some in e environment

Only through e
- As people deploying to New Orleans
- Rules of engagement being built on the fly
- People from multiple agencies
- Needed a place to centralize the rules of engagement where EVERYONE can go
- Created community of practice and given to all federal agencies
- "Go to this web site - get the latest"
- Can't DO this in the classroom.

Won a lot of awards - corporate university

People are more productive when they enjoy what they do.

First Transformation - looking at reach and improving the quality of assets
Second Transformation - Learning at the Point of Need

An employee, no matter where they are
- 3 clicks or less the goal
- When person shows up at 8am - they know everything.
+ NOT because they memorized it. They can get to it.

Organizations who are not transitioning from classroom-centric to employee-centric are in trouble
- Understand, they are doing more classroom training
- But NOT classroom centric

Create an environment for collaborating, innovating, and critical thinking by deploying technology for:
- Intact Team Training
- Story-based scenarios
- Immersion in Defense RElevant Business games and simulations
- New virtual worlds and web 2.0
- Enhance classroom technology
- True 24/7 access
- End to end knowledge sharing

Still have to demonstrate value.
-= Gotta have beneficial return for the enterprise.

Rapid pilot of program while they are figuring out
- community
- reach
- how it works
- full costs
- benefits
- why important for the enterprise

Informal acquisition Knowledge Management System (AKMS)
- AKSS - knowledge repository
- ACC - collaborative arm
- BPCh - validated practivces and lessons learned
- Multimedia video and audio library
Formal learning management systems
- Atlas
- Blackboard

Integrated environment
- Asset in one location
- Consumable by ALL locations

[Note to self - get this presentation. Model the system to mirror DAU]

This is still primary push.
- Want to develop a pull aspect
- Get information from the students. Know what employees need and deliver to them at their desk automatically.
+ We think you need this at your job. Employee doesn't have to go digging around for it.

Teaching and Learning Lab
- Where advance learning technology demos occur
- Where trying to create environment where ALL faculty members know everything in their specialty area in the morning
- Faculty needs to grow also
- Classroom
+ Best practices
+ Assess new technologies
- Faculty training
- Virtual worlds
- Telepresence - high def life-size video teleconference. Almost "in person". 2 currently. Getting more. Again - way to reach more people.
- TriZenter - 3 screen presentation system. Increasing interest, retention and recall.

Can do souce selection - get the right experts in right discussion in right point in time.

This is all about process and mindset!!!!!!

Games and simulations
- Putting them in ALL training courses
- Games and simulations require them to internalize and apply
- Also allows employee have fun.
- Learn that fun is good.
+ If a person is having fun, better focused, retain better.
+ Better engagement
+ [pretty funny coming from a formal military guy - esp when he said "I learned this today." Actually - Mr Anderson is drolly funny]

All page turners coming down.
- No one can put a new learning asset up as a page turner in DAU.

DAU first corporate training organization on iTunes U
- Received VERY positive feedback on their iTunes U
- Allows us to contact the future workforce in places that they use.
- Provides a HUGE engine for mobile learning. Didn't have to invent, develop, pay for.
- We had to convince them we are good enough to be there.

Partnering - GMU/DAU
- George Mason U brings things to table that makes DAU better

Intact Team Training
- Right now - improve ability of learning assets to help achieve mission outcome
- Take team with a mission. Work directly with them
- Develop assets and training resources directed at THAT INTACT TEAM
- We are dealing with the direct issues and challenges of the individual team to deliver an outcome
- This is a game-changer.
- How we improve the value of the investment made in training
- This is very very important for any corporate missionary

2003 - Future of training
- Said need to move to point that we have created virtual training spaces
- Avatars in the workplace
- Virtual workrooms where people can show up without travel

Now - team with Air National Guard to create virtual environment Nexus
- Nexus supports DL Training and Live AVATAR-DELIVERED instruction
- Major work underway, including creation of DAU campus.
- Working with DAU faculty on appropriate courses for pilot scheduled Dec 09
- This helps solve the issue with rapidly creating appropriate staging environments.
- Allow students to attend classes without leaving home.
- Expect people to occupy offices in this environment
- Can interact before the formal synchronous course
- Will contain links to courseware and resources
- Will support on-demand face-to-face discussion in ways not currently possible.
- Has PPT, whiteboard, Blackboard, IM, message board etc.
- Can now bring teams together BEFORE deployment
- Reduce travel and related cost.

[Essentially they are seeing this tool to help organize and provide access to EVERYTHING. Synchronous, asynchronous, classroom]

What has helped in developing this
- Instead of taking a bite-size
- When get an idea - just rapidly prototype. Get small success. Not worry about big implementation.
+ Get better understanding
+ Small success
- Willing to go do something, 60-70% success. Improve Then take to leadership.
+ Able to go to leadership with much better understanding of how it works, benefits, how to implement on a larger scale.

How do we take all resources they have to reducce the bad stuff
- Part of ongoing maintenance and curriculum review process
- Right now - taking down all page turners.
- If you are starting a new resource - given specific criteria for acceptance and posting.
- If high use - keeping up while making new product.
- Some areas need low-tech. Still working through that.

Nexus - does the engine and bandwidth create problems? Download? Security?
- If you can't use them at point of need.
- DiaCat - the process. Authority to operate across networks.
- Right now, trying to achieve authority across the 4 processes
- Using Gambrio as an engine

Don't believe that you have to have all of the expertise
- Team and share

Thursday, June 04, 2009

#Iel09 Thursday evening brain dump

I left the conference after having some munster cubes and a couple of chicken quesadilla cones. My brain pretty much stopped working after Will Wright's talk. I would have been perfectly happy to hang out with a couple bottles of wine and some of the conference goers as we try to process it all.

This is a gathering of some crazy-smart people. Crazy crazy smart people. Exhausting and exhilarating at the same time.

My lunch companions - Clark Quinn (@Quinnovator) and Craig Wiggins (@oxala75). Debating what the personality divider is between the ASTD crowd and the Innovations in eLearning crowd. Among other topics of conversation. Again, another fascinating, free-ranging conversation among people with mutual affinities.

Craig - so happy to finally meet you in person. And I have an idea for a blog post for you. Our conversation during lunch ;')


More of the hyper-smart people I am lucky to have talked to.

Mark Oehlert (@moehlert), Koreen Olbrish (@KoreenOlbrish), Aaron Silver (@mrch0mp3rs)

Mark and Aaron both gave killer talks today. Mark practically at the last minute. Aaron had to follow Will Wright. Mad props for being able to present after that talk, Aaron. I was having a hard enough time writing notes.


I'm certain you noticed a trend of fuzzy, bad and unattractive pictures.

I think I am going to use that as my visual trademark.

I took a couple of other pictures during the conference - but they were even cruddier than the ones I've posted today. Will be trying again tomorrow.


My little survey experiment for GameJam didn't work very well either.

Note to self - trying to do that at the last minute, not having attended the session, and relying on TwitFeed to post in a timely manner is not a good idea.


Like everyone else at the conference, I am hoping they post Will Wright's talk from today really soon. You will quickly understand why my notes made no sense.
is a classic example of one of the things Clark, Craig and I talked about during lunch - the ability to process a tremendous amount of information and do something with it.

It was almost scary.


My thoughts on Scoble's talk.

I dunno - maybe I was just tired. I didn't catch a lot of the stuff others talked about on the Twitter feed. One thing he tried to do, which I appreciated, was try to explain how he sifted through the insane amount of material he exposes himself to every day.

A couple of key things I picked up:

- This guy's entire life purpose is people processing.

- He started building this network in 1997.

- He has 2 levels of filter. Shallow - he keys on who is talking, a topic or a picture. 2nd level - he makes sure he knows who that person is to see what level of credibility he is going to assign them for that topic.

And I think "Who is this person?" is the question we need to ask more overtly when analyzing ANY source. I am not getting a sense that we are paying enough attention to that aspect of information analysis.


I came home to Ryan presenting me with a glass of Pinot Noir cooking dinner.

I guess there are some advantages to having your conferences near home.

I am a lucky woman.


See everyone tomorrow.

#IeL09 Following Innovations in eLearning

The real time twitter feed has been invaluable during this conference. I think there were more posts on Twitter from this conference in an hour than there were at ALL of ASTD. Innovations in eLearning only has a couple hundred people attending.

You can also check out the Ning community for the conference.

Good stuff....

I think next year - tweet handles on nametags!

#IeL09 Robert Scoble Presentation

I didn't have internet in the room Scoble spoke in. And he didn't talk about Naked Conversations or Blogging anyway.


Entire conferences on blogging
Now entire conferences on blogging.

The act of putting a blog out there and using them – commonplace.

If you want to share your knowledge – blogger or wordpress is the best way to get high Google search.

Most people know Google search.
- That’s ALL they know.
- Don’t even know where solitaire is anymore

Showing tools – Real-time web
How blogging fits into Twitter world

Showed Twitter experiment video – Dr. Monica Raskin

[Scoble asked a question on friendfeed on teaching a leadership class– started to get answers almost instantaneously – this is the link to the response.]

He has 120,000 people following him!

Sometimes uses technique to bring audience into conversation having. They are watching cell phones. People are able to feed into conversation in real time.
- Can ask questions of whoever he is talking to in real time.
- That ability dramatically changes the interview, the interviewee, the audience

The collective had a LOT more knowledge and could ask the questions.
- Others can search on other things at the same time and ask
- Could drill the topic deeper.
- Scoble almost serving as a voice of the collective.

An example of automating the classroom.
- You have a network! People you interact with!

Even if you don’t have that many followers – you may get answers back simply because of searches on tweets!

He has 5 computers and high res – 2 feeds from twitter and friendfeed. Tweet deck.

SkyGrid (still invite-driven)– looking at the world’s financial news. Real time.
- Keeps rolling news stories
- Can also filter news in Live Time

Google Reader.
- Help organize the feeds.
- The friends are bringing him the news. They are doing the filtering.
- Important to cultivate people who bring good content (uses friend feed because gets wider range of news)

He watches all of this information for things he would not have heard of before.
Looking at patterns.
- Looking for hot information
- Build filters so he can learn more.

Friend feed really is a search engine.

PeopleBrowsr – still really new – combining twitter facebook, friendfeed
- kinda like tweet deck
- trying to be lowest common denomimator
- Friend feed still more powerful
- But you can tag people!

Beginning to use Easly(?) (Firefox addon)
- uses feeds to present news important to me.

With all of these – if you don’t have friends, the news these things bring you is very generic
- If you spend time learning about what your friends bring you – they can customize it for you,
- More specific your friend-set, the better (or worse, depending on whether you want breadth or depth)
- Or 20 feeds – you should hand-choose with friends who talk about the same things.

Memeorandum (general news / politics)
- Noticing bloggers covering news
- Developed server where it goes through 2000 top news bloggers. Looking for patterns
- linking and blogging patterns
- Attempts to put in hierarchy based on past behavior.
- He also has Techmeme (technology)
- Can we regionalize these? Starting.
- Twitter – can search based on location. But not much metadata around the tweet. Know based on personal info – your speced location. Twitter may change this “per tweet” now global.

Important lessons from building network
- Write everyday
- Took time
- Put out there early and often. Just lots and lots of sharing (started way early with Usenet etc)
- Try to get access to things can’t get access to and share it.
- Try to share traffic with other people. Just clicking “Like” puts it in view of others. Sharing own audience.
- getting 1000 new people a week!
- Go to events, talk to a lot of people. Always reading when not with people.

Blogging world 2001-2005, will link to each other all the time.
- That’s how they operated
- Mainstream press – never ever link off property…..

Principles from retail – if sent customers away to other stores, will come back because honest and “authority on general marketplace”

Jessica Gross - Embracing the Twitter Classroom
- Images, video, links in a post tells person that they are
+ Generous with credit
+ Thinking about things
- Well written blog posts have lots of links

“Do you trust”
- Scoble – No.
- Journalism – editing before publishing.
- With twitter, friend feed, facebook – no editing
- Whenever don’t have disbelief on – burned. Misinformation passed around easily

How do you mitigate?
- Just using judgement
- You HAVE to filter. What are the 4 important questions. Not as if he is going in cold.

Disadvantage of media – you can’t tell who is who and what their role is in life.

You still have to do your own homework.

If you wait 24 (or even 1) hour, you will see things either line up and it becomes factual or non-factual.
- The feedback is almost instantaneous anymore…..

[ strikes me that his entire life is centered around processing people. Who they are, credibility levels, areas of expertise. Some of the questions – people are forgetting he’s been doing this for YEARS. Built the network over YEARS. Developed his personal filtering system over YEARS.]

Big news keeps coming back and getting repeated.
- and will keep popping up to the top.

[Scanning……constantly. Is looking for patterns of repetition.
He is also a very fast reader…..]

Twitter – can only see the haystack.
- can filter “5 likes or more” Will then get better selection of news. Signal/noise ratio improves.
- Can continue filtering.

Right now – still takes time to build the filters.
- Helps to have librarian skills
- in future, filters more automatic and done by the crowd itself.
- A higher level of “trending topics”

Solving problems – can put it in and get results.
- people will give different perspectives.

Revolution in education coming
- Kids are developing rich networks.
- Kids understanding they are only a few degrees away from people who may be in the thick of the issue or be experts on the issue.

The network as it grows out brings interesting people.
[ain’t that the truth]

Scobleizer – social media changing the way we learn
- Responses on friendfeed

Find your affinity group!
- Will help filter the information coming in.

He packages info and write and interview.

He is looking for patterns for general – search for specifics if he sees something.
He is looking to connect people
- Does it through clicking “Like”

Walking through his process
- Looking at names and remembering what they do if they know them
- Picture may catch his eye
- Topic may catch his eye

More sophisticated filters – centered around his knowledge of people.
- Person + keyword by knowing the expertise of the person
- Person – remembering that this person has cool stuff….
- Also filter away based on whether he knows it is written directly or by staff.

It’s just like studying data sets and looking for patterns.
- Same thing.

The people in our lives will be mixed with keywords.
- More we know about the people, better we can build the filters.

Retweet = favorite
- New users use favorite more often than older users.
- If someone puts up an interesting idea – it will come to the surface, retweeting, facebook.
- Then bloggers pick up idea.

#IeL09 Knowledge Sharing

Presentation: Knowledge Exchange Strategy for Enterprise
Presenter: Aaron Silvers

Had a strategy - eGov

In the 3 - 4 months since invited to speak, stuff happening rather than just history.

Focused primarily on social media and how involving users exchanging info into community of practice.

About Aaron
- Employed full-time by Fortune 500 company
+ Maintenance, repair and operations
- LETSI Member
- Independently consulting

Job 5 - content developer ADL
- Most known for sheparding SCORM
- How SCORM worked from content development perspective
- Background in classroom teaching

Knowing about the person is as important as knowing the information
- Provenance - relating the credibility of information to its source

Key to successfully assimilating
- Seek first to understand
- Leverage and cherish human connection - esp first contact
- Doesn't hurt by the first 5 weeks.

Dysfunction vs. Moving Forward
- Service disruptions
- Critical Skill Gaps
- Waste

Group think gets in the way of everything
- LEAN / 6sigma effective, but only if can guide the entire culture

Alignment is not bought by donuts.
- A shared vision of continuous improvement is not food in a meeting.
- LEAN and 6sigma tactics, not strategies

Tactics are ways to navigate strategy
- Strategy must be simple enough to be shared. Big enough to do.

No more silos - anyone can work with anyone
- Still have org charts - but repurposed for leader-led coaching

Organization feels more automic.

Getting people talking enables continuous improvement.
- Is an actual ethic.
- Individual concurrent with workflows and customer service etc

Knowledge Exchange Cycle - continuous improvement
- Social Network - sharing
- Communities of Practice - collaborate
- Knoweldge Management (librarian-type people) - community-authored
- Performance support
- Formal Learning - fills gaps not addressed in any other capacity [note where this is....]
- Evaluation
- Social network can then potentially be used as a form of evaluation.

Organizations are going to have to get better at gut-making decisions rather than just metrics.

Social Networking and Communities of Practice
- Twitter - a network for sharing
+ Tough to understand what is going on.
+ Something important happening in Twitter with profound impact with org.
- For past year - reading a lot. Connecting.
- Flow of information - not just about each other, but about learning and trade has been invaluable.

Use to collect new ideas.

All employees need and crave a medium to connect with each other.
- People like working on teams and projects (just maybe not the project they are actually on)

How do you sift signal from noise?
- the noise is necessary. If it was ALL signal - couldn't cognitively handle it.
- If too much noise - unfollow.
- Already filter by choosing who to follow.
- Some tools allow you to filter that group even more!

Some organizations really hip to this (IBM, CISCO)
- Others - not so much.....

Twitter probably not the tool the enterprise needs.
- Maybe a tool like it - that could be somewhat secured
- Yammer - a company twitter / network. - open-source install behind firewall
+ Launch in sept 08
+ Only people with or whatever can see the network
+ Any time add people - can get invite.
+ Invited 5-6 people to play
+ Eventually 100 people - most log in first time, looked around, never came back. Like Twitter.
+ Mid april this year - Ashton Kucher and CNN, get 1mil followers. Lots of information. Got to middle managers and VP and ask "what's this twitter thing." Connected the dots - yammer. Saw people in company using it.
-- They sign into Yammer. Poke head. Saw same 5 nerds. Not critical mass. no adoption or buy in.
-- They at least talk about it
+ 1 week after seeing mid mgrs sign in - see President interest. Logs in - pokes head around. Not much going on. But blogs about it on company blog.
-- Lots of interesting stuff. No strategy around it. Let's try something.
-- President encourages people to join.
+ 5 users beginning May 1. 106 users May 1. 300 users May 2.
-- It sat underground for almost a year
-- Without any meetings or formal implementation - someone at the top made it legit.

Imagine the conversations that have happened since then,

Day 1 - President live tweets shareholder meeting.
- Anyone in system in the know!

Week 1 - Ecommerce team can test new features and UI changes with more hands on more platforms. Employees excited to be asked!!!!! Quality and integrity of testing improved.

Week 2 - training programs tap into field employees. Advance cycle time 2 months - without formally assigned SMEs!

Week 3 - Sales programs engage with ecommerce and IT about collaboration and re-use vs. pursuing different solutions to similar challenges.
- People starting to talk to each other.
- Build solutions to work for all.

It's been 5 weeks.

What hasn't happened.
- We didn't "buy" Yammer. Still using the free service.
- Seeing community policing - "nudging - hey not appropriate" among each other!
- File sharing may be an issue - webinars, podcasts, tips in system. Just guideline to not share company sensitive information. That nudge working too.

It is really only beginning of the conversation.

Inside Yammer - they are starting to form groups
- partly as filters
- also because across organizations - social groups developing as well
- Interest groups developing organically - across organization. Flash, Enterprise 2.0.
- How to build augmented reality - tool kit with tutorial for Flash/Flex/3D

What's compelling is that someone in the organization took the link and did something with it. Even more surprising - a BRANCH MANAGER did something with the link. Not IT or Web Services.
- People are becoming more self-motivated.

Lots of talent the organization can harness once you determine what discover the affinities.
- Not quite mature enough in use yet to figure out how to leverage this information
- Beginning anecdote collection
+ People using to help each other
- Finding this is a way to discover who the experts are!
- Still may have some difficulty figuring out how to pull metrics to help leverage.

Asked about archive and retrieval in Yammer
- Given nothing untouched - everything infinitely retrievable
- Tough to get to the actual post. Esp. if its old.
- If pay for admin privileges - allow you to delete older posts en masse

This or any other sharing social network. Can have watercooler experience - kinda fun.
- For others, way of connecting.
- Tools are text heavy
- Document exchange is difficult
- Scheduling mass meetings tricky

Yammer is unlimited in character count. Longer posts tend to be skipped.
- NOT for external. Internal only.

Communities of practice
- The groups are organically developing
- This is where knowledge actually generated.
- From "I" to "we". More compelling when more heads.
- Can enable with Sharepoint

Clay Shirky - Here comes everybody
- Sharing (twitter, yammer, flickr, lastfm)
+ Requires nothing on your part in regards to effort.
+ Just type in brief info. Upload. That's it.
- Cooperation (you are going to synchronize with someone else and vice versa)
+ You have to wait for someone else.
- Collaboration (bigger system. Add negotiation with others)
+ Successful collaboration - everyone gets what they NEED, not what WANT.
+ Negotiation makes it trickier.
+ Not group think - not constant argue

Theme in conference - What is the key for success (games)
- Failure
- Design

Design matters
- collaboration is not simple!!!!!
- Try to clear up the paths.

Tools for collaboration and things people want to do
- Creation of something (documents most corporate-likely)
- Coordinate / scheduling
- Messaging - status
- Who's in the same system at the same time.

Right now - lots of ways to to that in the workplace!!!!
- But the tools are not really integrated.
- Shared drives, project servers, email thread
- Goal with integration

Communities of Practice - Leadership
- Using this to pilot SharePoint
- Currently have few ways to collaborate
- Bosses don't want to talk about "boss stuff" in open network. Needed place to discuss and build a shared ethic of how things work.
- They are also trying to develop themselves. This org is one where people moved their way up.
- In military - know what steps people took to get there. In corporate - not true.
- Also asking to take over employee development.

Why change - shift from central training to support
- Cost
- Effectiveness
- Sustainability (flying people around the country - not sustainable)

Using asynchronous eLearning now (expensive to maintain)

Beginning to look at more academic learning. Blended learning with domains - places where people can continue discussion.

Risk - how plays into this.
- They are still doing risk assessment on Yammer,
- President advocated for it - so can't say "no" anymore outright.
- Finding in case of Yammer that short of file exchange - there is not a lot of other risk.
- Likelihood vs practice. In practice - very self-policing.

Policy put in place will be equivalent to the risk.
- OSD and services. Not developed.
- this is the problem area in the space.

#IeL09 Will Wright Keynote

Presentation: Keynote - Will Wright
Presenter: Will Wright

Had a fantastic conversation with Craig Wiggins and Clark Quinn. Will talk about it later when I get a chance.


Game Design
- Hard part is the DESIGN side.
- Have to be a designer at different levels.
+ Story
+ Hobby - long-term involvement
+ Skill
- Also has elements of architecture, arts, math, psychology
- SUperset of other design fields.

Combination of requirements for any design artifacts
- Job to balance all factors

Play testing

Trying to prune branches as quickly as possible.

Cultural recognition of games - tainted
- see them as violent, "too immersive"
- Remember - books were threatening too.
- It is an indication of power that media can be absorbing

Every time new format comes out - turns thumb old formats look down at format after that.
- Most media go through tremendous evolution - content, use

Comic books originally religious propaganda
Writing originally early bookkeeping

Technology changes affect arc of media

People who invent these things don't see where things eventually go.

TV - "renaissance in education"

Always good and bad as things mature. Chaotic evolution.

[ Very fast history of media technology ]

Every format start as specific problem solving.
Being used for broader purposes.

- Do not think about "education". Seems disconnected
- Very broad activity. Fundamental survival thing organisms face.
- We have experiential bubble. We process information from world. Then relate.
- Learning is about improving the loop.
- We build models, do scenarios.
+ Sub-aspects - classification, causality, empathy (reading others), agency
- All of this instantaneously
- We take the model making for granted.
- For animals - classification - eat or be eaten
- Higher levels - begin to develop causality, empathy, agency

More intelligence, harder to predict.
- what may have bootstrapped intelligence.

Experience bubble - we are learning from experience we have.
- Finding ways to enhance learning.
- Some experience through toy experience (play. ALso learning)
- Learning from others experiences (story. also learning)

Story / Play
- Story we see as emotionally rich thing.
+ Games have a very rich emotional palate, but different
- Video games - pride, guilt accomplishment. You have agency. Causes different emotions.
- Linear media - joy, sorrow, pity

Some of best stories are deconstructive. I can take them apart.
- Can play with the parts. death star v. borg cube.
- What about harry potter spiderman?
- Eventually lead to interesting play experiences (even in imagination)

Best play - inherently generative
- The things share with each other - the unique stuff.
- The interesting stories are the gamers story THEY constructed.

Story and PLay forms of model building playing off each other.
- Exploring a possibility space.
- Games have the restart ability. We can't do this in real life.
- We can try different choices. We will never get the reality.

Choose your own adventure book - early form of branching.

Game - have level, ultimately have to collapse back to get to the next level.

More - gaming is evolving into open simulations.
- Sims
- Grand Theft Auto
- May have structure and goals - but more satisfying more can customize.

Dimensions in Sims
- Material or Social success.
- Highest level, need to balance the two.
- Can capture data to see how pwople are going through the spaces and how to balance that. Then improve.

Toy worlds buiit on idea of abstraction
- Value of model - you are removing levels of reality. Can focus attention
- Subway map - only have details absolutely want
- Toy design - leave lots open ended, minimal detail.

Toys and games through very presentation make scary subject accessible.

Subtle presentation changes, certain level of abstraction - we want to play. Fill in the details.

Language - Dealing with it in different levels (design language)
- What are the concepts the player is manipulating.
- Kids are seeing a much higher level of abstraction than we think.

We are learning new languages all the time.
- We use a sign language called "mouse". Mouse - version 1 - Do/POint. 2.0 Do (left) ask(right) Point. Gets more complicated.....
- Games are the same way. Game players having elaborate conversations - fairly fluently. Good gamers paying attention to the abstraction - not the talk with the computer.

In Simulation Design
- Structure. What are the parts of a system?
- Dynamics - What are the changes in the structure over time?

Dynamics / Topology / Paradigm
- [I hope I can find that graphic]
- Games can be classified by how rigid the topology is. Agents (flexible, individual) / Networks / Layers (like levels)
- Dynamics (Verbs)
+ Propogation of material, information, patterns.
+ Cheat codes bait to connect to community
+ medium
+ Time
+ Growth
+ Grouping
- Topology - Dynamics + Topology (nouns)
+ Network theory, chaos theory, cybernetics, adaptive systems
+ Based on interesting technology at the time. Popular ways of looking at the world (relativity (lg) vs Quantum mechanics (sm) )
+ Cybernetics - control theory. How can we mimic the autonomous control system?
+ Jay Forrester - System Dynamics. You can simulate anything by stocks and flows.
-- Chemical processing
-- Output - limits to growth. Building model of entire world. Ran model and predicted that around 1986 world economy collapse. Got a couple of variables wrong that amplified.
-- First inkling into Chaos theory
+ Cellular Automata - behavior emergene from the rules
-- Sim City - simple rule sets leading to complicated behavior
+ Chaos theory - certain systems inherently unpredictable
-- Phase space / possibility space

Other Topographical concepts
Complex Adaptive Systems
- So self aware (economy, biology, civil) - lots of inherent density of feedback
- Run from random, disordered to frozen, ordered.
- The middle systems are chaotic and most interesting (fractals, homeostatic, limit cycles)
- Simulations spotlight ignorance of particular systems and where those points of ignorance are.
- What do we need to learn? SImulations excellent.

Network Theory 0 can look at almost anything as an "internet"
- Power Law Distribution
- Connectedness. When take individual agents and connect them at random, how many do you need to make before you have a fully connected system.
+ Graph width - how many steps to get from 1 to another.
+ Never really more than 6 links

[my notes are a tad confused - he went mighty fast with some very complex ideas]

Schema - we can abstract from large sets of data - rules
- Expectation for things to occur. Because MOST situations have MOST of the steps

Interesting when the Schema goes awry.

Models building from schema
- Collecting higher level schema to build model
- Kids using scientific method when playing. Model > do > what happens > tweak model

Game designer - what is the most succinct set of rules that will lead to the widest variety of situations.

Gamer is engaged in model building.
- You are building the model in the players head!!!!!
- The computer stuff is bootstrapping players model. But Player's model development key.
- Will need to ramp it up over time. Layer on complexity.
+ Start simple (kill the Nazis). Add more complexity over time.

Right off the back - fail until figure out how to move character.
2nd level - using motion to figure out how to do simple problems.
next level - more complex problem.
next level is nested from the previous,

Players enjoy the failure side more than success.
- Want the failures to be diverse.
- "Last time I failed this way, maybe I can do it THIS WAY...."

Want them to bring familiar metaphors to a game
- Sims, electonic doll house
- SimCity - train set

Model building begins before game is even purchased.
- What the game about, what like
- If it seems "fun" - more model. Model fun enough - may bring it home.
- They are playing it in their imagination in the store.

Game designers act as anthropologist
- Looking at body language
- Artifacts within game
- Help understand what player thinking
- Want player to describe to the game designer how it works. Very illuminating.
- "Mouse test" - Let me try! Indication they have successfully bootstrapped a model.
- "Do you want to save it?" - if want to save progress, tells them game has gotten to a certain stage. Still want to play after walk away. "When I get back I want to try....."

Imagination - the human side of the equation
- want the games to be scaffolds to players imagination

People excited to do fun creative stuff.
- jumping things, etc
- Self-expression most motivating factor. "Look what I did!"
- Want to share
- amount of stuff people create for each other astounding.

People using games as independent filmmaking tools.

Now the line between consumer and producer being broken down.
- through games and interactive web technologies

For any format - large # consumers, small # producers
- skill required steep
- In games - wanting to lower skill required
+ Want to make the curve of producers linear. Want more people involved at different levels.

- Value proposition and interactions - between each others

- Casual player to collectors to producers(?) to creator
- Also recognition the other way. REcognition from the larger community
- Losing control of the community is a good thing.

Spore - wanted the community to create the creatures.
- 1 million Spore creatures in 1 week

If you give the people the right tools and right motivation - power of collective effort.

Computers good at harvesting human intelligence.
- Distill in form useful to you

Spore and games like it - can harvest human creativity

Games to computer what racing to cars
- Entertainment in general is driving technology in general.

Virtual Reality
Augmented reality - you can map computer / virtual data onto real world.
- Starting to appear on cell phones

Graphics really evolved.
- Controllers very clunky.
- Starting to increase the input pipelin (see Wii)

Non digital content - 20 terrabites library of content.
Within 1 year - terabyte thumb drive.

Motivation is the issue, not access.

Constructivism - way to spark imagination

Computers - expand imagination

Amplification of imagination allow us to expand our world. Gives games power.

#IeL09 DHS Learning Model

....Came in really really late.

Right now - no training facilities.

Groups had challenges with quality of facilities, geographies.

Leadership institute
- Deliver essential leadership training at career milestones.
- Not easy to get $$ to develop GS 11-13 grade

Leadership courses will include:
- Executive leadership programs
- Senior Executive Service Candidate Development Program
- DHS Fellows Program (etc.)

Online training - a challenge.
- Enterprise site license with SkillSoft
- Licenses opened up to Families.
- Using Books 24/7

Problem with LMSs - DHScovery
- 10-12 LMSs scattered across departments.
- These are JUST INTERNAL. [and I thought my org had an issue with disparate training groups]
- No one can create a full report for an employee. Just on the course
- Trying to reduce to 2 systems based on 2 platforms. [They are even using different operating systems!] Probably Plateau based.

[I think this is an update of a presentation I attended last year]

Have a Preparedness Center.
- Developing a cadre of "National Security Professionals"
- Inter-agency

Reduced to Excel spreadsheets, PowerPoint, Some have their own LMS attached to own HR system for reporting.
- Was thinking about going to MaxHR. But unions got together to prevent implementation.
- FY09 appropriations - no moneys will be used to implement a performance management system. [WOW!]

There is a "lessons learned" center that really isn't doing anything
- And there are multiples.
- FEMA and their lessons learned have been built into some of the programs.

They are still trying to define roles and missions within DHS
[case study in the hazards of merging different cultures]

Regularly - have major political folks becoming "heads." Developing training to get them up to speed fast.

Everything still very localized. Trying to create "enterprise" training. Still very much in infancy.
- Vision is just not getting transferred to components
- Trying to combine multiple trainings.

[Underlying all of this is the political challenges of getting people to work together and reduce duplication of effort. Struggle over "who has the better material." Struggle over context - because everyone is special.]

Struggle over collaboration
[kudos to the presenter for being brutally honest]

#IeL09 Learning Technologies Transforming Our World

Presentation: Learning Technologies Transforming Our World
Presenter: Reggie Smith

The presenter got lost and I spent time trying to put up the survey.

Right now, sitting with Clark Quinn and others to figure out what to do next.

#IeL09 Virtual Worlds and Real Learning

Presentation: Virtual Worlds and Real Learning
Presenter: Mark Oehlert

Sarah Robbins - Ubernoggin


Sparga - Second Life
- We can choose not to re-create classrooms. Really.

Please think as differently as you can when approaching virtual worlds.
- Do NOT stop at the recreation of physical spaces

Virtual worlds CAN change the dynamic of experiential learning from simulated approximation of role play to authentic practice in realistic contexts.

To realize this shift will demand a reassessment of how we perceive learning and a revolution in how we DESIGN learning experiences.


We are only limited by our design thinking AND OUR DESIRE TO CHANGE IT!!!!


Think ninja


The future of virtual worlds
- Virtual worlds propogate like websites
+ Creating one will be easy

- The ability to prototype culture as easily as products
+ [This may be HUGE, especially in corporate applications]
+ Economic world inside world. What happens in the virtual economy - see what happens. Synthetic Worlds Initiative - Indiana U.
-- Found Everquest had 42nd largest economy in the WORLD!
-- People make REAL MONEY in these virtual worlds.
-- There are entire groups just GoldFarming. Will then re-sell.

- Reinventing locality
+ IBM Global Services - don't have offices.

- Avatars as focal points - tracking student records ACROSS WORLDS.
+ Scanned you as verification model
+ Single point of portability across worlds

- Augmented reality - virtual overlay physical
+ Lady of Mazes (book)
+ We may be looking at virtual overlays as we walk

- Manipulation of the real through the virtual
+ Can go into virtual world now - looks like manipulating virtual, really manipulating real object with real consequences.

- Can become the UI
+ Can become the main UI for the web
+ We are visual / spacial creatures

The hangup
- design, design, design........

In Virtual
- The whole ability to point people to the thing you are talking about - powerful.
- You can make chairs disappear when working in the virtual world when stand
- "So why did we sit and watch powerpoint if we can fly!"

Virtual world allows you to replicate processes hard to see in real life.

What is the end result you are looking for!
- Not about - how you are going to implement.

We have to rethink from the end user standpoint

One model - ADDIE
- ADDIE is a PRODUCTION model. Not about learning.

When get into virtual worlds, we need to consider more.
- You want to look at filmmaking prduction

Unified Field Theory of Design
- VERY powerful for design of all sorts.
- Maybe we ought to consider this as one way to think about instructional design

2D representations of 3D worlds seem to have more viceral impact than we have initially given credit for.

As an anthropologist - avatars fascinating
-- Avatars tell you a lot about you.
-- Might be the most truthful representation of how they perceive themselves.

Why are the first things we construct floors and stairs and walls....
- How rapidly we re-create the known.

What are the hidden literacy expectations for these worlds?
- 1 Laptop per Child project.
+ How do you tell someone how to use a computer if they are not literate?
+ Literacy more apt than skillset as a way to look at computers and technology use. Ability to move in Virtual environments a literacy

- Example - WASD forward/left/right/back. Space = jump ALmost all PC games

Context is absolutely critical - Virtual Worlds allow you to create really rich contexts around the content you create.

Schizophrenic Clinic in Second Life
- When walk in - can put something on avatar that cedes control of the system
- Can choose male or female experience.
- AS soon as you put on badge, hear voices
- Very disconcerting
- About as close as you can get to the experience without actually being schizophrenic

Can mimic and roleplay all sorts of new scenarios.
- Sounds trivial until you do it.
- We can't roleplay enough to get people actually relate to it in real life.

Prediction - WIthin 5 years, virtual world technology will integrate with or subsume enterprise activities such as
- Recruiting, retention, training, learning, education, collaboration, HR, KM

Linden Lab - now working on 2D to 3D collaboration on command.

Technological and cost barriers are falling away.

The strategic thinking of how to USE these technologies will become significantly more important.

KPMG - world wide recruiting drive using Virtual Worlds.
- We are failing to recognize how quickly the barriers are falling.

Virtual Worlds getting traction - in early adopter stage.
- They are looking at Virtual Worlds because its a competitive advantage.
- We may move along the curve a lot faster than we have.
- When talking about corporate deployments - Sun, IBM, Oracle, Shell, Chevron. This is REALLY happening.

A Brief Definition of Virtual Worlds
- Spatial
- Persistent (when you leave it - things are still going on)
- Real-time
- User-Agency (ability to not have a pre-scripted series of actions and motivations)

World of Warcraft - NOT a virtual world, still quite a bit of pre-scripting
- Games have goals.
- Designed from someone other than you.

Blessing and Curse of Second Life - VERY Freeform
- The cognitive dissonance in Second Life - from Education, Porn and wings is HUGE.

Of course in a corporate and learning enterprise, there will be limits.

Linden Lab - hosting company. Their space is 3D. "Land" in second life is space in server.

Almost all virtual worlds have economy system.
- Allows context of competition, measurement of success, "gaining stature"

What is the ability of someone to participate in a virtual world who can't see?
- [Has this been discussed much?]
- Huge issue in Fed Govt.
- Disabled groups using virtual worlds and like that they can fully participate in the world.

Ultimately, it all goes back to design.
- It's not the technology!

If we apply the right level of effort to see how organization can use this - can be powerful.
- There is a WINDOW where this is a competitive advantage.
- Develop a strategy.
- Think cultural, social, technological

The investment that you will be able to make and SUSTAIN is the knowledge of how the tool works and how to implement and how it can impact the strategy of your organization.
- You learn how to deal with the process even better.

Sustainability - some consistent assets that carry from world to world.
- It's a process.

At DAU - looking at virtual worlds for
- Tool class. Getting familiar with applications.
+ Phone number, listen for several hours
+ Maybe use the virtual world to let them get familiar with tools in the environment
- Using it to model process flows, system flows.
- Can replicate low frequency, high consequence (like disarming bombs)

Federal consortium of virtual worlds
- Major focus on authentication and the ability to operate behind a firewall
- Focusing on interoperability / data portability

Same rules on human experimentation apply in Virtual Worlds.
- Same rules for disclosure
- Information front - already have those.

Biggest challenge is design!
How are we going to use this thing!
- Really ought

#IeL09 Thursday Morning Keynote

Presentation: Keynote - Internet and Education
Presenter: Dr. Vinton Cerf, Google

Scary - more laptops here in this small room than at the big ASTD Hall altogether.
Dr. Alan Merton - President, George Mason U.
Teaching and learning - there is a lot of LEARNING that ought to go on that doesn't relate to a specific teaching function.

We are doing research in PARTNERSHIP.

We are not in passive service - we are community-driven and community-driver.

Long-term vs. short term planning (theme)

Dr. Vinton Cerf, VP and Chief Internet Evangelist, Google

Internet emerged out of educational environment (ARPANET) - 1969

1st 3 network test of internet - Nov 22, 1977
- Most significant milestone
- Took 3 different packet switch and connected using common protocol
- Prove can combine disparate systems
- knew had real technology

By 1999 - demonstrates the collaborative nature of the internet
- Each system is an independent decision to join!

Right now - 625 million+ publicly visible. Not counting stuff behind firewalls and episodically connected (mobile devices, etc)

Mobile telephony grown - 4.1 billion in use.
- 15-20% have access to internet
- Internet services through Mobile still a challenge - due to display size and keyboard design
- We harm ourselves by thinking of using Internet 1 device at a time.
- If mobiles smart enough - can bring mobile and detect a projection system to interact with. Both recognize. Then mobile can go to projection unit for better display. [is this already being done with Bluetooth?]
- Mobiles may be evolving into "little remote controllers"
- Questions asked on mobiles geographically located. Contextually located.

Internet population - 1.5 billion
- Asia representing almost half of the worlds internet population. (657.1 mil, only 17% penetration)
- Implication for use of the net. Interest and culture varies.
- In contrast - North Am. 251.3 Million, 74.4% penetration

Educational uses of the internet
- email - first killer ap. Collaboration, communication, distribution
+ [Is this because it is the system we best understand today? Is this the best tool?]
- Web Sites - blogs, twitter [Don't think Dr. Cerf is a fan.....]
- Social Networks (teachers, students)
- WWW search engines
+ Expunge "teaching" from vocabulary. It's all about "learning"
+ Lesson - information you get on internet needs to be considered critically
+ Your job is to help students think critically about ALL sources of information.
- Innovative interfaces - note I/O discovery
- Navigation systems (GPS, Galileo...)
- Geo-location based services
- Navigation system

Google Tools to assist education
- Google Earth
+ Not simply a device for presentation and query. Will accept information.
+ Applications to place overlays.
+ People can use to present geographically indexed information. Increasingly useful and valuable.
- Google Maps
+ Also has programming interface. Can program and place information over it.
+ Ability to dynamically change information very helpful.
- Together Maps and Earth quite valuable.
- Google Ocean / Google Sky (Google Earth Aps)
+ Undersea topography / Look at the stars
+ Used by scientists to display information about data collected
+ Google Sky - help you find which constellation you are looking at
- Timeline in Google Earth - can show change as function of time.
+ Can present both past and future information in the timeline.

- Utility conveyed by those who use the applications to produce materials.

- The Google Earth tools (incl. Google Mars) valuable discovery tools.

Homework Assignment
- Anecdote: Student use of Internet/Laptop in lecture hall/class
+ Students using internet to do research during class on the topic.

- Pick any one of your (pick your number) pages
- Evaluate the accuracy and completeness of the page
- Cite resources used to evaluate; criteria
- Required: use of library in addition to online resources.

The JASON Project (National Geographic)
- Getting a chance to do something is a powerful lesson

Internet enabled Devices
- Persuaded there may be many many more devices in future. (internet-enabled surfboard)

Sensor networks - may become extremely powerful sources of information
- IP v6 Sensor net (he has it in his HOUSE)
- 15 network devices,
- Will be running out of addresses for IPv4 soon
- Every 5 minutes - recording temperature, humidity and light levels. Collect over course of a year to adapt to optimize. Real data.
- Commerical product - Arch Rock.
- Can take raw data and help people learn to analyze - key skill!
+ We need to have better feedback on the decisions we make with consumption of power - esp with environment
+ Deborah Estern - Participatory Urban Sensing
-- Can use mobile to track whether you were someplace where you were exposed to toxins.
-- Mobiles can record information using the pictures - location, date, time. Submit to database.
-- Aging relative with mobile and can sense motion (display flip) - you can see whether mobile has moved at all.

We are carrying around information windows AND sensor systems!
- This could be powerful in educational context.

LOTS of things will wind up being networked
- They could be controllable and deliver info through the net.

School use of tech
- Fishler School, Fullerton CA. All 2nd through 8th graders have 1:1 laptops 24/7. All stagg have Promethean Board
- Virtual Labs using "real" instruments.
+ Actions in virtual lab have real-world consequences.
+ [Early example - telesurgery. He's talking about something 1 step removed]
- Collaboration with shared tools (Gtalk, Skype, IM with Google Docs or other shared sites
+ Kids working together to create.
+ Simultaneous edits.
+ Sure beats sending copies around [now all I have to do is convince my co-workers...]
- Integrating tools into lessons learning.

Learning by doing: powerful in all disciplines

Cloud Collaboration
- Multiple data centers (replication,responsiveness)
- Dynamic capacity sharing
- Data sharing (latest copy in the cloud)
- Video and audio conferencing with data sharing
- Inter-cloud interactions (new research area)
+ How to refer to other clouds
+ How to refer to data in other clouds
+ How to make data references persistent (unlike URLs)
+ How to protect clouds from various forms of attack
+ What semantics can we rely on with inter-cloud data exchange
+ What notion of object useful for inter-cloud exchange

Don't just think of people using desktop and laptops.
- The kinds of tasks you can expect someone to do are vastly larger than 1 laptop by itself.

InterPlaNetary Internet
- Intended to deploy technology across the solar system.
- Mars Reconaissance Orbiter, Mars Express, Rovers
+ Plan - transmit back to Earth to big 70m dishes via radio
+ Problem: Rover radios overheated. Had to reduce data rate from 28 Kb.
- JPL - had an Xband radio, had to be orbiting asset.
- Rover finds orbiter, orbiter holds onto data into place in orbit then transmit to earth - 128 kB/sec
- Similar way to internet.

- Need to think long-haul (because there are really really big distances between planets). Also have that pesky rotation problem.
+ Licklider Transport Protocol (LTP)
+ Bundle Protocol (RFC 5050)
-- Delayed binding of identifiers
-- email like behavior
- Delay and Distruption tolerant protocol
+ Deep impact testing - October 2008. Didn't lose a packet. Will be going Outbound in summer. Will reload.
+ Space Station testing - 2009 Right now installing the 2 protocols. Will test this summer.

- 3 node network - Earth, Space Station, Deep Impact / Epoxy
+ Scaffold for testing. Probably not be in final network.

- Important part - the standardization.
+ If all "spacefaring nations" adopt them - any previous assets can be used too!

Richer networking could be VERY beneficial.