Had a chance to catch up with Dr. Kapp before the afternoon keynote.
Talked a bit about how much energy blogging requires. Especially when you are the throes of other creative projects. He has book writing as an excuse. My excuse...not so good ;)
Presentation: Why 3D, Games and Simulations Matter for Learning and Collaboration
Presenter: Karl Kapp
Often - we use technology. Think the shiny object solve our problem.
Right tool for right time makes sense.
Learning in 3d
Identity - no deep learning that takes place without identity
- We always wanted characters
- Research indicates that human social models influence behavior, believe and attitudes (Bandura, 1986 - Social foundations of thought and action)
- Learners perceive and are influenced by 3d representations of ourselves, help us learn - even when adapability limited
Can experience as avatar change a person's real life perceptions?
- (Audience) Yes.
- Yee & Bailenson (2006) - Walk a mile in digital shoes
+ Age person in digital time. Watching yourself age a way that influences behavior
+ Take negative stereotypes of aged people and made YOU an aged avatar. Found they had more empathy towards aged.
Are 2 avatar better than one?
- Motivator / Expert vs. Mentor
- Yes - 2 avatars better than one. Have a motivator avatar and an expert avatar.
- Single avatar, people would approach as only motivator or only expert
- 1) Avatar looks like you lounging
- 2) Avatar that does not look like you exercising
- 3) Avatar that looks like you exercising
- Avatar that looks like you exercising - more likely to exercise 24 hours later.
Starting to see the more an avatar looks like you, more vested you are, more likely to demonstrate behavior change in real life.
Learners more influenced by an avatar of same gender and ethnicity/race with some interesting exceptions
- Middle school kids with avatar representing engineer. Female engineer more influential about making both male and female kids think about having a career as an engineer than a male engineer avatar.
+ Most role models for middle school children female teacher. Result: more female influence
+ Male avatar may be more intimidating.
+ Not sure. Research doesn't know yet.
- In Games - males who chose female avatars, behaved with male behaviors. Females with male avatars still showed female behavior (study done with 5th graders)
- Found same that racial bias also persistent in virtual world.
- (audience)Some men choose to be women in virtual worlds because more support.
- (audience) If avatar presented realistically (overweight) - more motivated to lose weight in world, which then transfers to real world.
If you think of technology timespan - we are only day 4 on birth of virtual world.
- Still have learning curve, how to move avatar around.
- Not too long ago - showing people how to navigate hyperlinks
Virtual environment - More efficient and effective learning environment for higher order skills.
- Not so good at lower order.
But think about it - we don't really need to memorize anymore. We can look stuff up.
- Still need to know declarative knowledge.
People learn facts better when embedded in story vs. lists.
Can we take a virtual world, tell a story related to our job, embed the declarative knowledge within.
- Design issue.
People tend to conform to how their avatar appears regardless of how it is perceived by others.
- Taller avatars more aggressive negotiators than shorter avatars
- Took people out of world - the folks who were taller avatars negotiated more aggressively in real life 15 min later.
People project attributes they would like to have on avatar - but on superficial level
- Different point of view impacts how you think about yourself and avatar
- Still have conflicting research in terms of relationship between avatar and person
Which builds more confidence classroom or simulation?
- Simulation - 20% higher.
- Situated cognition, we can immerse person in environment
- Recall better closer we are to our real environment.
+ We don't apply information learned in classroom in classroom in real life.
- We have to do performance. NOT multiple choice.
- We make instruction too easy
- We leave out important negatives (ie - does the patient die in real life? Um...yeah....)
In class - give them the most difficult scenario. But they are applying the knowledge.
- Does work give you trick questions? Um...yeah....
Want to put them in a situation where they are looking at the meaning behind the steps. Not just the steps.
Do simulations have to be entertaining to be educational? No.
- Don't have to be fun to be instructional
- Remember your tough teachers? BUt the ones you learned the most from?
Gotta change the expectation. Apply skills need at work.
- At work, you will also be sweating and unhappy. Go with it.
- Sitzman (in press) - A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology
More emotionally tied we are to an event, more we can recall.
- If not emotionally invested, probably won't remember
(audience) In simulation - in safe environment. Can do more what if.
- 3d environment should not automatically = fun.
- People expect game looking things to be fun.
US Dept of Ed - online learning marginally more effective than classroom instruction BECAUSE people spend more time on task.
- Measure, how long does the learner stay on task.
Neuroscience - important to fail since releases endorphins therefore more likely to remember.
Flow in a 3D virtual world is impacted by 3 factors
- Frustration ----Bored
+ Flow state - performing at level that matches your skills perfectly and lose track of time.
+ Can do this with hobby, cooking, video games etc.
1) Degree of presence sensation perceived by students. How "there" do students feel.
2) Skills must be up to challenge. Too hard, no flow state.
+ Ideal - 1 level above your skill.
+ Getting incrementally better over time. Progressively more difficult as getting incrementally better.
+ Madden 2008 - team you were playing as you got better. Players found too frustrating.
+ Don't want to get to the point where learner feels they can never be successful.
3) Perception of interactivity in the virtual learning experience.
+ Please no more virtual powerpoint.
Ex. if teaching about safety in a factory, maybe build a virtual factory. Be in that environment. More powerful.
eLearning - consistent interface
Does world of warcraft have consistent user interface? No.
- There is something we are not getting. Not sure what it is.
- Right now, can't tell by the research.
First person view vs 3rd person - Ohio State (2004)
- Who was more likely to vote? 3rd person view. (interesting)
- Then asked people who felt socially awkward in high school - imagine socially awkward situation 1st person v. 3rd person. 3rd person people felt themselved more changed.
3rd person more effective because what we do with our memory - we change it to suit our situation.
- Often so favorable to us.
3rd person better way to change behavior.
Second Life - doesn't feel like us in 3rd person because missing peripherals.
Could people learn pro-social behavior by watching pro-social behavior.
Lemmings (pro-social behavior)
Leimers (blow away the lemmings)
Control - Tetris
Pro-social game more likely to pick up pencils vs. the Leimers and the Tetris folks
Learning between traditional instruction and 3d virtual world - the same.
- But when asked competency level of trainees - lower in virtual environment.
- Was HAPPY with this result. Wanted people to come in with some trepidation. Worked better in real life
What kind of learning can this new technology enable.
- Use it as an opportunity to do things in a safe environment.
Interactivity + Immersion = Sustained engagement
Results in meaningful learning.
Information transferrable from virtual to actual.
Learners prefer instructions (let them go do it) than instruction.
Simulation makes sense beyond just where lives at stake.
- Factories, call centers, retail stores, other work environments.
We need to have students experience 3d virtual world for themselves.
- Also need to teach elements of storytelling.
- How do you expand scenario-based learning / k-space / problem-based learning into instructional design so more mainstream.
Game developers - first thing you do so easy. Then building the scaffolding instead of telling them all at once.
- Immediate feedback
- Often, we try to dump into the simulator all at once.
- Small incremental goals.
- Play games to see how this works.
Cathy Moore - Making Change. Searching for Hajai Kamal.