Presentation: Deeper Instructional Design: Cognitive Science and How People Really Learn
Presenter: Clark Quinn
(yup...blogger...hiding in the corner...near the power....)
Elements of Enhanced ID
How do people really learn - use that to design system.
- And what technology affords us.
Doing more strategy. More people looking for 5 year roadmaps in his practice.
Current wipeouts - Missed Opportunities
- Focus on knowledge, not skills
- Over produced, under designed
- Lack of emotional engagement
- Uninformed by research
- Learning Grounded
- Emotionally engaging
- Pattern matchers - good at detecting discrepancies, bad at rote memorization
+ Folks can put rote details in the device, focus on pattern matching
- Learns - compiles knowledge, inaccessible
+ We start with explicit - then compile. Gets into format not examineable
+ Experts have a hard time describing what they do. Gap between what they say they do and actually do big.
- Build explanatory models
+ Explain and predict. If you don't give them model, they will create the model anyway.
+ Hard to extinguish. If the model is wrong, and proven to be wrong, people still hang onto the old model.
It's about learning? Not really
- It's really intellectual self-gratification
- It's about DOING.
- Stuff you do for fun....do you LEARN about that? Avidly? Courses?
2 goals of learning
- Retention over time, between learning experience and when application needed.
- Transfer. Broader the applicability of the skill, less likelihood we are able to address ALL appropriate situations.
We gotta engineer that and support the abstraction.
We can't "create" learning
- We can design environments conducive to learning.
- We design learning experiences.
Don't design CONTENT, design EXPERIENCES
- Design the "Flow".
- Start bringing in emotions and the actions they take
The Nueremburg Funnel.
- Huge manual to train people to use it.
- Got 19 cards and put minimal information on them to get the learner through tasks.
- Principals - let's give people credit for what they already know. What is the smallest amount.
Principal of least assistance - what is the least I need to do to get them over the hump.
Can't dump a bunch of knowledge on people and expect anything to change or retain.
Respecting our learners
- Meaningful goals
- Most effective learning - don't waste their time. How fast can we do this.
- All dimentions - Cognitive (what retain), Affective (learning styles) and Conative (intention to learn - commitment, resistance, anxiety, motivation)
+ Most instructional design really addressing Cognitive component
+ Don't design lesson differently for different learners. Design for the message.
+ Motivation and anxiety. A little bit of stress you perform better, but varies greatly by person.
Ways to improve
Objective to Aligned Objective
- Do NOT assume that it's about a course
- Information update? Job Aid? (like a checklist?)
- COurses are for when you want a significant skill set shift
- Do NOT accept what the SME tells you.
+ Experts don't know why or what they do. They don't have access to the reality of it. It's a story. "Gotta know x,y,z,a,b,c...."
+ Focus on KNowledge (the knowledge dump)
+ Gotta make sure that it's a meaningful decision change.
+ Gotta be able to access and APPLY the information
+ What can the DO differently. Not just what they KNOW
- Make sure it's a meaningful decision change!
+ Having organizational impact
+ Skills, not Knowledge. I reserve the right to raise the level of the objective.
The role of the SME and Instructional Designer changes
- SME is still expert. But - what can the student DO DIFFERENTLY now.
- Use the SME to see what the difference is in the ACTION and RESULTS.
- Focusing on decisions instead of knowledge help them refocus what the SME is talking about.
- Ultimately, what is the bottom-line impact to the organization.
Intro to Motivating Intro
- Motivating example - hook viscerally.
+ Exaggeration of the consequences of NOT having the knowledge for many
+ What do they care about (fear, greed, sloth great motivators)
- Overview - connect from context to content
+ Drill-down to show where you are and why doing this.
- Learner-centered Objectives - NOT designer-centered
+ Want to reactivate the relevant knowledge when introduce the new knowledge.
+ First have to open them up emotionally BEFORE open them up cognitively
+ How is this training going to help THEM (WIIFM)
- Experience expectations - What's coming
+ Let them know when it is short. Or long
+ People who succeeded with a goal, set reasonable small expectations.
+ Big mismatch between expectation and experience - higher anxiety for the student.
Concept to Multi-Concept
+ People reason with models
+ Group trained with model could still fire the phaser. If SO rote only do it one way - automate it.
- At least text + diagram
+ pictures provide conceptual relationships
+ pictuers map conceptual relationships to spacial relationships
- Multiple representations
+ different ways to look at it
+ different media
+ more models, more examples, more opportunities to resonate with the learner, get to see the pattern, other examples make more sense.
Hardest part - get people to see the importance of the underlying models.
- Models that explain how things work allow you to muddle through better
(Hey! I'm already doing this in my Application training!!!!!)
Example to Story Example
- Stories are better processed
+ We are well architechted to understand stories (see anthropology and cultural myths)
- Worked examples - provide steps
+ with each step, you provide the step AND the example
+ See where the expert make the mistake AND how they fix it.
+ See where the expert deviates from the step....and WHY.
+ More models (experience) = more stuff to bring to bear to solve it.
- Cognitively annotated
+ Make apparent the underlying thought process.
+ Remember: experts no longer have access to what the real thought process is.
+ Get to see the Expert's perfect process
+ Shows how expert self-monitor and self-correct
+ Self-esteem, self-repair
+ Transfer by domain
+ The context you show in example and in practice will constrain the distance in which they will transfer.
+ Pick representatively disparate example and context - will help with application transfer
- Explicit link to the Concept
+ Have expert talk to the model
+ Build the expert self-talk within the model / example
Practice - Event-based Practice
- Context they see in Example and Context in Practice
+ Start with similar practice seen in example then spread the gap
- High-enough level
+ Make sure what doing in practice what they need to do in the real world
- Meaningful Decisions
+ Give context
+ Meaningful to domain
+ Meaningful to Learner
+ Active - this does not include RollOvers
+ Concept based feedback - link it back to the concept / model.
+ Goal - have model help them become self-monitoring
+ All of the above is defined as a game
+ This is not random
+ People make Pattern-mistakes.
+ The pattern-mistakes are based on their existing model that they are bringing to the table.
+ Take the opportunity to address the mistake they made as a result of the model.
+ What is the most common thing people do wrong and GUIDE THEM TO IT.
+ Give them easy-to-access job aids and performance support
Game best used when either hard to change model and/or a skill that really really needs to change.
Learning can and should be hard fun
Summary to Enhanced Summary
- Emotional Closure - acknowledge the emotional commitment and effort.
- Individual Performance. Relate THEIR performance to the material,
+ Give them space to enter their answer. Then give model answer.
+ Give them rubrics to compare what is IMPORTANT in their answer.
+ Deeper thought without having to process the open-ended answer. Did you consider...
- Further directions
+ Type 1 - you are now ready to do...... (hey look, you accomplished something)
+ Type 2 - "If you want to learn more about this subject...."
- Keeping active - supporting beyond practice
+ Encourage using it other places (family, kids, etc.)
+ Learning follow-on. Mobile one option for this.
+ Give them hints. (so how close is MY design to date to this ideal)
- Drill back up
+ Reverse of what you did early on.
+ Put it back in the broader context
Clark loves to start with the emotional hook.
- "You are not going to care about the objective if you have not hooked them emotionally."
Keep your ideas simple. What can you trim down to make your point?
- Real opportunities
- Many cultures have comics as part of their popular literacy. Easy to communicate just enough context without overwhelming.
- Low bandwidth
- Low cost
- Easier to change
- If you leave enough space, not to hard to internationalize
- Watch the humor - may not translate.
- Resistance because not "professional." But it WORKS
(Google with Chrome)
Scott McCloud - Undertanding Comics
Cognitive Apprenticeship- All of these disparate fields will probably converge on this.
Maybe you should separate out the concept from the example.
- Semantic lab allows you to chunk further, tag and find later.
- Stream out multiple examples, not necessarily at the same time. Very valuable if the time between learning and application is large. Can do this mobile, even after face-to-face course.
(One thought - Export Control or other compliance training. You are not going to use the knowledge all the time, but what if you provided small example chunks......)
- Be more regorous in your design
+ Proper elements, properly elaborated
- More flexible design
+ emotionally engaging, minimalist, alternate paths
- More flexible in notion of learning event
+ Little bits more often
+ broader view of learner
+ Broader view of learning
Exaggerate more than SME will tolerate. Make them reign you in.
- The learners will thank you
What is the LEAST I can do
Assume intelligence in your learner.
Assume people have interests and passions. How do you hook them
Why is the SME so turned on by his or her field too?
Not just about the course. About opening up mind and heart.